Ferrous metals that are a subset of mild steels are known as structural steels. We’ll discuss the applications, mechanical characteristics, and chemical make-up of the most popular grade, S275, in this article.
Structural Steel Applications
Because of their adequate properties and comparably low price, structural steels are the most commonly utilised steels. They are valuable in various fields as a result of this combination. About 25% of structural steel is used annually in building construction. When designing machinery with few specialised requirements, such as great durability or resistance to strong loads, mechanical engineers favour it.
Sometimes keeping a low weight while preserving material wear resistance is critical. For instance, mining and forestry equipment fall under this category. It is then advised to use high-strength, wear-resistant steel from Dana steel.
The steel used for structures needs to be weatherproofed particularly thoroughly. Regardless of whether a machine is located inside or outside, powder coating is frequently utilised because they have a tendency to corrode readily. The metal surface needs to be prepped (chemical etching or phosphating) and cleaned (blasting, washing, or wiping) in advance for a long-lasting coating. Galvanization is an additional, more reliable method of preventing corrosion in structural steels. The amount of phosphorus (P) and silicium (Si) in a steel’s chemical makeup determines the quality and application of a zinc coating:
- Si+2,5P0,05% equals first-rate quality
- Si+2,5P with a negative outcome of 0,15% at 0,05% (Sandelin range)
- 0,15%Si+2,5P0,25% = worse quality • 0,25%Si+2,5P = undesirable outcome
Stainless steels, most frequently AISI 304 or AISI 316, are utilised as an alternative in cases of tougher circumstances.
Structural Steel Mechanical Properties
YS: 260-360 N/mm2, TS: 335-435
The maximum load a metal can endure without breaking is known as its tensile strength. Again using the S235 example, this value ranges from 360 to 510 MPa. Even if it is noticeably higher than yield strength, you should still consider it while choosing the best material for your situation. This is because exceeding yield strength only causes deformation, whereas exceeding tensile strength causes failure.
Classification and Impact Resistance
There are various letters both before and after the numerals, as we just discussed. S, which stands for structural steel, is the prefix for this material. There are further choices, including P for pressure vessel steels, which are designed for various uses. Temperature affects the behaviour of ferritic steels. At lower temperatures, they grow more brittle, while at higher temperatures, they become slightly more ductile. When the circumstances call for it, this must be taken into account. A forklift might tip over a building left outside in the winter when it’s -20°C, which could cause a brittle fracture. As a result, pick a steel that has good impact resistance.
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